Man in Box

Man in Box

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Momentos claves en la contextualización del código de conducta de MenEngage en Nicaragua


Tuesday, January 24, 2017 

Momentos claves en la contextualización del código de conducta de MenEngage en Nicaragua

Douglas Mendoza Urrutia y Ana María Bermúdez

reposted from http://menengage.blogspot.com/


Código de Conducta REDMAS
http://menengage.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Nicaragua-MenEngage-REDMAS_code-of-conduct.pdf


















La Red de Masculinidad por la Igualdad de Género de Nicaragua (REDMAS) es una red que llegó a su noveno aniversario con 20 organizaciones de la sociedad civil. Coincidimos organizaciones feministas, organizaciones que trabajan con niños, niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes y grupos de hombres. El objetivo de este artículo es compartir las razones que nos movió a construir nuestro propio Código de Conducta.  Identificamos cuatro momentos claves en este proceso.

Diálogo con el movimiento feminista

El primer momento fue un encuentro con compañeras del movimiento feminista sobre el trabajo de masculinidades. Compartimos la historia del grupo de hombres contra la violencia formada en los años noventa. Preocupados por la violencia contra las mujeres y motivados por las compañeras feministas nos organizamos para hablar sobre nuestras propias vidas y hacer  un trabajo público de concientización.
Muchas compañeras no creían en el trabajo con hombres. Señalaban que posterior a la revolución sandinista los hombres habíamos continuado con el machismo, pese a que la intención era ser hombres nuevos.

Nos dijeron que el trabajo de masculinidades genera discursos igualitarios en los hombres pero pueden seguir siendo machistas en sus vidas cotidianas. Por eso cuestionamos a fondo esas relaciones de poder de los hombres e impulsamos este trabajo desde muchos frentes: las paternidades, la salud sexual y derechos reproductivos, la prevención del VIH y el SIDA, las diversidades sexuales y la prevención de la violencia. 

Las compañeras nos hicieron preguntas que nos cuestionan:

¿Surgió el trabajo de los hombres producto de los malestares de los propios hombres sobre los núcleos duros de su masculinidad o nació por el malestar creciente del feminismo?  

Nos preguntan sobre la intención y las motivaciones más profundas de nuestro trabajo con los hombres. ¿Es para hacer reformas que preserven el poder masculino o es para unirse al movimiento feminista y desmontar el poder masculino patriarcal?

Las compañeras nos dijeron que los hombres tienen que ser interpelados. Aquí está la esencia de la rendición de cuentas. Desaprender el machismo es un proceso lento, con avances y recaídas. Por eso necesitamos esa constante interpelación del movimiento de mujeres. 

Nos señalaron los riesgos de enfoques en el trabajo con hombres donde se diluye el análisis de las relaciones de poder, dejándolo como un problema superficial de comunicación, o se coloca a los hombres en un victimismo (“hombres sufridos por el machismo”), o se teme abordar temas como la homofobia. 

Estas reflexiones críticas nos comprometen a crear más espacios de diálogo con el movimiento de mujeres, forjar alianzas concretas y mejorar nuestras prácticas internas como red.

Código de Conducta de MenEngage 

El segundo momento  influyente en la decisión de construir nuestro Código de Conducta fue la adherencia de nuestra Red al Código de Conducta de MenEngage Global. Pensamos que sería importante trabajar en un documento que normara las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres al interno de REDMAS y con los grupos metas que trabajamos. Vimos que no era suficiente que cada organización tuviese su propia política institucional de protección o código de ética, sino que necesitábamos una como REDMAS.

Taller regional en Auditoría  y Rendición de cuentas

El tercer momento se marca con el taller regional sobre auditoría y rendición de cuentas, que se realizó en Nicaragua, facilitado por MenEngage. Nos dimos cuenta de la dimensión política de la auditoría y rendición de cuentas. Comprendimos que para transformar las relaciones de poder los grupos privilegiados deben rendir cuentas y escuchar la perspectiva de los grupos con menos poder. Por ejemplo, los hombres deben rendir cuentas y escuchar a las mujeres; y las mujeres activistas deben también escuchar a otras mujeres marginadas. Se trata de una herramienta anti-opresiva de alianzas.

Rendir cuentas es compartir con transparencia lo que hacemos y estar dispuestos a ser cuestionados. Urge escuchar y tomar medidas cuando nos señalan prácticas que violan nuestros principios. 

Al final del taller nos comprometimos a firmar el Código de Conducta de MenEngage, tender un puente de diálogo con organizaciones de mujeres que no son de la RED, poner en común la apuesta política de REDMAS con todas sus organizaciones miembros, y replicar los contenidos del taller con las organizaciones miembros.

Taller de réplica con la Asamblea de REDMAS 

El taller de réplica fue el cuarto momento del proceso. Ingenuamente creíamos que todas las personas dentro de la RED establecemos relaciones de respeto y equidad, dado que somos activistas con un compromiso con la igualdad y los derechos humanos. Al abordar la rendición de cuentas, salió a luz situaciones problemáticas dentro de la RED que no se habían abordado. Algunos compañeros estaban tratando en forma sexista a algunas compañeras. Se estaban facilitando actividades educativas con metodologías inapropiadas. 

Concluimos que no se podían seguir permitiendo estas prácticas.  Sin embargo, no teníamos claridad sobre cómo proceder. Era más fácil resolver los análisis de casos teóricos sobre violaciones al Código de Conducta incluidos en el diseño del taller, que enfrentar casos similares en la vida real. 

Teníamos que sentar un precedente, para no dejar el mensaje equivocado de que en REDMAS se encubren esas situaciones pero, ¿Cómo hacerlo? Sentimos mucho temor de que las situaciones se hicieran públicas y perdiéramos nuestra credibilidad como RED. Prevaleció nuestro compromiso de practicar la coherencia entre el discurso y la práctica.

Existen organizaciones que no son de la RED que están haciendo trabajo con hombres con enfoques reforzadores del machismo. También comentamos de líderes de organizaciones acusados por delitos de abuso sexual que han solicitado integrarse a la RED. Esto fue también otra motivación para contar con un Código de Conducta para evitar que organizaciones con prácticas cuestionables ingresen a la RED. Estas situaciones surgidas en el taller aceleró la decisión de contar con un Código de Conducta. Y lo fuimos construyendo en forma participativa con los aportes de todos y todas.

~~~

in English:

Key experiences in the contextualization of the MenEngage Code of Conduct in Nicaragua

By Douglas Mendoza Urrutia and Ana María Bermudez


REDMAS Code of Conduct
The Masculinity Network for Gender Equality (RedMas) is a Nicaraguan network of 20 civil society organizations that recently celebrated its ninth anniversary. Among its members are feminist organizations, organizations working children, adolescents and youths and men’s groups. The aim of this post is to share the experiences and reasons that led us to build our own Code of Conduct. We identified four key experiences in this process.

Dialogues with the feminist movement

The first experience was a meeting with compañeras (female comrades) of the feminist movement about work with men and masculinities. We shared the history of the Group of Men Against Violence formed in the 1990s. Concerned about violence against women and motivated by feminist peers, we organized ourselves to work both inwardly, sharing reflections in private circles about our own lives as men, and to start the outward process of reaching out to other men for awareness-raising. 

Many feminist compañeras did not believe in the work with men. They pointed out that even after the triumph of the Sandinista revolution men continued with their machistas tendencies, even though the intention was to be a new man within a just social order.

We were told that the work on masculinities generates egalitarian discourse in men but that many remained macho in their daily lives. That is why we are committed to question the power relations that men establish. That is why we are pushing this work from many fronts: paternity, sexual health and reproductive rights, prevention of HIV and AIDS, sexual diversity and prevention of violence.

The compañeras asked us questions that challenged us:
Did work with men arise out of personal discomfort with the hard cores of their masculinity, or was it born out of solidarity with feminism?

They asked us about the intentions and deeper motivations of our work with men. Is it to make reforms that preserve male power or is it to join the feminist movement and dismantle male patriarchal power?

The compañeras told us that men have to be questioned. Here is the essence of accountability. Unlearning machismo is a slow process, with advances and relapses. That is why we need that constant interpolation of the women's movement.

They also laid out some of the risks of some approaches to working with men: the analysis of power relations may be diluted, reducing it to a superficial problem of communication; placing men in a victims’ role ("men suffering from machismo"); or fearing to address important themes such as homophobia.

These critical reflections commit us to creating more spaces for dialogue with the women's movement, forging concrete alliances and improving our internal practices as a network.

MenEngage Code of Conduct

The second experience influencing the decision to build our Code of Conduct was our Network's decision to adhere to the MenEngage Global Code of Conduct. We thought it would be important to work on a document that would regulate the relationships between men and women within REDMAS and with the target groups we work with. We saw that it was not enough for each organization to have its own institutional policy of protection or code of ethics - we needed one like REDMAS’s.

Regional Workshop on Accountability

The third experience was the regional workshop on accountability, which was held in Nicaragua in 2015, facilitated by the MenEngage Global Secretariat. It was there that we realized the political dimension of accountability. We understood that to transform power relations, privileged groups must be accountable and listen to the perspectives of groups with less power. For example, men should be accountable and listen to women and women activists must also listen to other marginalized women. It is an anti-oppressive alliance tool.

To be accountable is to share with transparency what we do and be willing to be questioned. It is urgently important to listen and take action when others point out practices that violate our principles.

At the end of the workshop, we committed to signing the MenEngage Code of Conduct, building a bridge of dialogue with women's organizations, disseminating our political commitment with all member organizations, and replicating the contents of the workshop with member organizations.

The Replication Workshop with the REDMAS Assembly

The workshop on accountability with our members, also held in 2015, was the fourth experience in this process. We naively believed that all people within the network establish respectful and equitable relationships, since we are activists with a commitment to equality and human rights. In addressing accountability during the workshop, problematic situations within the network that had not been addressed emerged. Some of the male members of the network were behaving in sexist ways toward female members. Some educational interventions were being implemented using inappropriate approaches.

We concluded that these practices could no longer be allowed. However, we did not know how to proceed. It was easier to resolve the theoretical case analyses of violations of the Code of Conduct offered in the workshop than to tackle similar cases in real life.

We had to set a precedent, so as not to leave the wrong impression, that REDMAS was concerned about such situations, but did not address them. We were very afraid that the situations would be made public and we would lose our credibility. Ultimately, our commitment to coherence between discourse and practice prevailed.


There are organizations that are not members of the network but are working with men on gender issues using approaches that reinforce machismo; we have also received requests to join the network from leaders who have been accused of sexual abuse. These were other reasons why we needed a Code of Conduct - to prevent organizations and people with questionable practices from joining the network. The situations discussed during the workshop accelerated the decision to create a Code of Conduct. And we built it in a participatory way, with contributions from everyone.

Friday, April 08, 2016

I Just Joined the North American MenEngage Network

I don't often join organizations.  I don't think of myself as a 'joiner'.

I think that characteristic is due in part to the way many non-profit membership organizations tend to behave in the United States (I don't have any real knowledge about how wide spread this behavior is in other countries.)

I often get the sense that organizations invite me to join so that they can exploit me.

They clearly want me to join so they can raise money from me.  Perhaps, but surprisingly infrequently, they might want my volunteer labor or for me to show up at a demonstration or lobby day.  But almost never do they want my real participation.  It is like the last thing they want is a relationship with members that comes with responsibility.

Most significantly, insubstantial membership definition means no relationship to the governance of the organization. Glaringly many online organizations don't even reveal who are the people on their governing boards or how they elect/appoint their executive staff (let alone what their standards are for staff employment -- pay and benefits.)  Amazingly, their program may be about social justice and/or democracy and the organization doesn't find it important to publicize their policies regarding the relationship of members to governance, staff rights, and equity in employment practice.  With so little impulse for accountability are these really social justice organizations?

Given my assessment above, is it any wonder I am reluctant to join?  Why would I?

~~~~

For about a year now I have been hearing from several men whose work on gender issues I greatly respect about the formation of the North American affiliate of the international network known as the MenEngage Alliance.   

Today I decided to take a look at the website of the North American MenEngage Network (NAMEN).   I was so pleasantly surprised by what I found.  I had had the impression that the Network was for organizations only, but then I found that it was inviting individuals to become members.  When I looked (with my skeptical glasses on) into this possibility I found that they wanted prospective members to agree to a Core Principles statement and a Code of Conduct.

Once I took the time to read the Principles and the Code of Conduct I was very impressed.  There are fifteen principles listed and I found myself agreeing with every one.  Clearly, this was an organization ready made for me!  Then on to the Code of Conduct.  There are quite a few items in the Code, most having to do with favoring relationships of respect and equality among members.  In terms of the organization itself the last is probably most important:

Ensure Transparency at All LevelsMenEngage Alliance members will strive to be transparent, honest, fair and ethical in  all of its actions, including making public its sources of funding and annual budget  and spending, except in cases where the donor requests to remain anonymous. Transparency also means working collaboratively with local organizations in places where a MenEngage member or network exists.



I don't find many non-profits putting such out front.

Finally, regarding structure and governance this is what I found:

Operating Structure We have an operating structure that includes a Steering Committee and Working Groups. Any member of NAMEN can join a working group.  Steering committee members are elected for three year terms by the membership in the fall of each year.

Now that I am a member, I know the path to leadership in the organization in the event I am interested in that pursuit. Most membership organizations these days don't bother to tell you about such paths. Wonder why not?

In any case, I am so impressed by the Core Principles and Code of Conduct that I am reproducing them here. We need more non-profits to get serious about this kind of relationship with their members.


NORTH AMERICAN MENENGAGE NETWORK 
Members share the following core principles 


The MenEngage Steering Committee organizations and individuals are motivated to work collectively based on the following guiding principles:

  • Gender as relational: In their daily lives, women and men together experience and shape gender roles and relations. MenEngage believes that to transform gender relations, men and women must work together to redefine and build a more just and gender equitable world.
  • Challenging men’s violence against women and children: NAMEN is dedicated to engaging men and boys to end violence against women and children, including sexual assault and trafficking, and in questioning and challenging violent versions of manhood.
  • Challenge men’s violence against men: NAMEN is dedicated to address violence between men, including intimate partner violence, war and conflict, gang-based, bullying, and hate-based violence.
  • Promoting existing UN mandates: We are dedicated to engaging men and boys to fulfill the mandates, statements of action, and principles of ICPD,  CEDAW and CSW statements (48th session), and CRC and working collectively to encourage governments to do the same.
  • Engaging men as caregivers: We are dedicated to promoting more equitable and responsible participation by men and boys in caregiving, the care of children and domestic tasks.
  • Working as allies with existing women’s rights processes: We are committed to working as allies with women and women’s rights organizations to achieve equality for women and girls.
  • Sexual diversity and sexual rights: We are dedicated to promoting cultures of masculinities that respect sexual diversity and sexual and reproductive rights of all, and that engage men so that reproductive health and contraception are more evenly shared between men and women.
  • The vulnerabilities of men: The Network believes that the specific needs and experiences of men and boys have often not been well understood nor taken fully into account in the development of public policy or professional practice across a wide range of areas.   We believe that men and boys, while benefiting from sexism, are also made vulnerable by non-equitable and violent versions of manhood. Men and boys who do not adhere to “traditional” or stereotypical regimens of manhood are particularly vulnerable, even while they continue to receive the personal and institutional benefits their gender affords them.
  • Engaging men from a positive perspective: The Network believes that women and girls, boys and men, and the wider society would benefit from recognition of these issues and appropriate action to transform non-equitable and violent versions of manhood and redress power inequalities related to gender.   We seek to build examples of men acting in gender-equitable and non-violent ways and to imbed those values into institutional practices and public policies, thereby increasing our abilities to positively impact the lives of men and women, girls and boys.
  • Participation: The Network will strive to include and take into account the voices of men and women, boys and girls, at the community level, and the voices of community-level NGOs.
  • Non-discrimination: The Network will actively advocate against, question and seek to overcome, sexism, social exclusion, homophobia, racism or any form of discriminatory behavior against women or gay/bisexual/transgender men and women, or on any other basis. Whenever possible in our activities, programs, and advocacy actions we will seek to explore the intersections between these forms of discrimination and address their impact on gender equality, men’s violence against women, children, and intimate partners, and healthy masculinities.  
  • Transparency: The Network will be transparent, honest, fair and ethical in all of its actions, including making public its sources of funding and annual budget.
  • Collaboration: The MenEngage partners seek to work in collaboration, dialoguing openly about institutional differences and achieving consensus whenever possible.
  • Evidence base:  The MenEngage partners seek to build on evidence-based approaches to engaging men and boys based on the available research as well as experiences in the field.
  • Human rights perspective and life cycle approach:  The partners recognize the need to apply a human rights perspective in all their activities and to take into account a lifecycle and ecological approach that incorporates both the individual as well as the broader social and structural contexts that shape gender inequalities.


North American MenEngage Network
Members share the following Code of Conduct adopted by 
 
the Global MenEngage Alliance


Adopted 2-5-2014
Full version available for download

Introduction

MenEngage is a global alliance of NGOs and UN agencies that seeks to engage boys and men to achieve gender equality. As such, all existing and incoming institutional members of the MenEngage Alliance must conduct themselves in a manner that is consistent with the values and principles of the alliance, including the individual/family level --- advancing gender equality, human rights and social justice.


1. Create Peaceful (and Equal) Professional Environments
MenEngage Alliance members spend countless hours every day, week and year working to achieve social justice in local communities and around the world. This same work ethic also applies to our own professional environments. MenEngage Alliance members do not tolerate harassment or threats in any form – verbal, physical, psychological, sexual or visual – that make others feel otherwise unsafe.
Organizationally, this means treating others (including women, children, LGBT individuals, persons with disabilities, etc.) as equals inside the office as well as in communities impacted (directly, as well as indirectly) by our activities, programs and projects. MenEngage Alliance members seek to work collaboratively, dialoguing openly about differences (institutional or otherwise) and achieve consensus building


2. Promote Gender Equality and Social Justice Outside the Workplace
The purpose of MenEngage Alliance is to promote gender equality and social justice, thus it is imperative for the proper functioning of the MenEngage Alliance, and for the maintenance of its integrity and good reputation, that members work with their staff to ensure they uphold principles of gender equality not only in their professional, but also personal lives. This means, but is not limited to, building relationships with women, children, transgender individuals and men founded upon respect, speaking out against violence and injustice in your community, sharing decision-making power with others, respecting human diversity in all its forms, and recognizing and upholding the rights of others in all circumstances, including humanitarian crises situations. It also means being critically aware of the interconnections between gender inequality and other prevalent social and structural injustices such as classism, racism, economic inequality, and homophobia.


3. Do Not Discriminate Against Others
No member of the MenEngage Alliance will discriminate against others for reasons pertaining to national origin, race, color, religion, gender, age, language, physical or mental ability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic or marital status, nor for any other reason. Members who come across such instances of discrimination against women, children, LGBT, or any others will actively question and challenge them both inside and outside the workplace.


4. Be Violence Free
MenEngage Alliance members are committed to the principle of non-violence, under all circumstances, and work to prevent and combat violence in all its forms, including sexual and gender-based violence, violence against women and children and male interpersonal violence. Violation of this principle of non-violence may adversely affect the efforts of MenEngage and lead to the tarnishing of the Alliance’s beliefs and principles. Thus, member organizations must hold all of their staff members accountable to a rigorous antiviolence standard. Violation of this provision may lead to the removal of the member’s affiliation with MenEngage.


5. Prioritize Ethical Standards and the Safety and Well-Being for All - including
Women and Children
MenEngage Alliance members take a “do no harm” approach to the work they do in communities around the world. For this reason, it is important to be aware of how patriarchal structures highlight men’s and boys’ vulnerabilities, and largely place women and children in situations that often cause them the most harm. Members should work on how to prioritize the safety and wellbeing of all individuals impacted by their programs and projects. This includes striving to include and take into account the voices of key stakeholders including men, women, boys, girls, and transgender individuals at the community level, and the voices of local activists and organizations in program design, development and evaluation, as well as any other initiative that aims to engage the community.

Members will also follow international ethical principles and guidelines on research and program implementation such as ensuring participation is always voluntary and informed consent is given. Acquiring consent from children and those in “captive” areas (i.e. schools, prisons) require additional safeguards to ensure participation is always voluntary.


6. Avoid Conflicts of Interest
MenEngage Alliance members have an obligation to do what is in the best interest of the network, in line with its mission and Core Principles. If a staff member is presented with a situation whose outcome creates personal benefit for him or herself, friends or relations, or the member organization, at the expense of the integrity of MenEngage, there may be a conflict of interest and it should be avoided. Carrying out transactions or situations that favour certain organizations or individuals over others can lead to the tarnishing of the MenEngage Alliance’s beliefs and principles.

Additionally, MenEngage Alliance members strive to work transparently and collaboratively across countries with regional and national members of the network wherever they are present.


7. Hold One Another Accountable
MenEngage Alliance members are aware that both their positive and negative actions reflect back upon their organization and the network as a whole. For this reason, while MenEngage aims to recognize the successes of its members, members must also work to hold one another accountable for actions that go against the Principles of the Alliance. Accountability can mean different things depending on the context. It may mean confronting a colleague who makes a sexist comment about women’s bodies, or holding quarterly meetings with key stakeholders such as LGBT groups to ensure that the implementation of an HIV-prevention project is carried out in a collaborative and transparent way. The most important thing to remember is that the integrity of the MenEngage Alliance is dependent upon individuals who are critically aware of their actions as well as those of others, including close friends and colleagues.

A minimum package of requirements is now available for the MenEngage Alliance on accountability that includes how to create strong workplace policies (i.e. child protection, sexual harassment, equal opportunity hiring, etc.), an accountability protocol and a training to ensure that members’ standards of accountability are in line with those of the MenEngage Alliance. These are available now on www.menengage.org.


8. Ensure Transparency at All Levels
MenEngage Alliance members will strive to be transparent, honest, fair and ethical in  all of its actions, including making public its sources of funding and annual budget  and spending, except in cases where the donor requests to remain anonymous. Transparency also means working collaboratively with local organizations in places where a MenEngage member or network exists.

Should you want to consider joining the Network as an empowered member visit this membership page.




Monday, September 28, 2015

Engendering Men: A Collaborative Review of Evidence on Men and Boys in Social Change and Gender Equality

edited by Jerker Edstrom, Alexa Hassink, Thea Shahrokh and Erin Stern, September 2015.
http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/7059/EMERGE.pdf?sequence=1

Preface

Designed to help answer the question, ‘what works best when it comes to engaging men and
boys for gender equality?’, this evidence review critically assesses trends and shifts in
related social norms and structures over the past 20 years, successful policies and
programmes and implications for best practice, and future directions for promoting men’s and boys’ support for gender equality across a variety of priority thematic areas.

Each of the [nine] chapters reviews the changes that have taken place in the past 20
years across one thematic area, and the roles played by formal and informal institutions and
policies in these changes. This framework is used to set the broader context for the
discussion, which subsequently looks at specific programmes and policies supporting
changes in gender relations, including those that focus on women and girls, as well as those
that are not specifically aimed at gender equality.

Finally, implications, questions and priorities for learning, gaps in evidence and knowledge
are highlighted. The goal is to move beyond a narrow individualistic programmatic focus and
attempt to achieve a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the interplay between laws, policies and institutional practices in achieving gender equality and the most effective pathways for sustainable change that take into account individual, community and
structural factors. The chapters cover themes as follows:

1.  Introduction: Framing the evidence and shifting social norms
2.  Poverty, work and employment
3.  Fatherhood, unpaid care and the care economy
4.  Education
5.  Sexual health and rights
6.  Health and wellbeing
7.  Sexual and gender-based violence
8.  Conflict, security and peace-building
9.  Public and political participation

This evidence review is part of a two-year learning and evidence project, EMERGE – or ‘Engendering Men: Evidence on Routes to Gender Equality’ – being undertaken by the
Institute of Development Studies, Promundo-US and Sonke Gender Justice between
January 2014 and January 2016, with funding from the UK Department for International
Development (DFID). The evidence review, combined with other project elements, aims to
cultivate stronger leadership for working with boys and men to promote gender equality, by
gathering, interrelating, analysing and strategically disseminating evidence and lessons in
targeted and accessible formats for improved learning, policy and practice.



Chapter abstracts

Chapter 1  Introduction - Framing the evidence and shifting social norms
What are social and gender norms and how do they change? What are some of the broad trends that drive and constrain progress towards gender equality? More than 20 years have passed since men’s roles, responsibilities and potential contributions were first recognised as a critical component in the fight to achieve gender equality. While globally during this time, values in support of gender equality and women’s empowerment have been trending upwards, full gender equality is still far from realised. Harmful gender norms remain entrenched in many cultures across the world. Changing the way men accept and live gender equality in their own lives is part of a broader social and political process of change.

This chapter explores the broader processes that drive and constrain change across education, health, caregiving, political and economic participation and more. It explores how long-standing gender norms and expectations are informed and reinforced by social groups and institutions, and embedded in social and power relations. It provides context as to how
large social, political and economic forces drive change at both the societal and individual
levels, and outlines promising interventions, gaps and blind spots, and recommendations for
the future of the field.

Chapter 2  Poverty, work and employment
Globalisation and macroeconomic policy over the past 30 years have increased women’s
participation in formal and informal paid work, whilst their responsibilities in unpaid domestic work have not been significantly reduced. Many other gendered economic inequalities remain (such as in pay, land rights and inheritance) and there is a mismatch between increases in women’s economic assets and other expressions of empowerment including decision-making and participation in public and political life. Evidence shows a range of roles for men in women’s economic empowerment from obstructive through to supportive, and it highlights the importance of understanding contextual and cultural notions of gender and masculinity for economic change. Experiences of engaging men in programmes for women’s economic empowerment, predominantly through microcredit, show positive outcomes in women’s psychological wellbeing, household relations and economic empowerment. The significance of specific strategies for working with men however is less well understood.

Future research should explore policy and programme responses that take into account men
and gender relations at greater scale. There is also a need for more research on men and
masculinities in ‘power’, ‘at work’ and ‘in policy’, and to unpack the relationship between
gender equality and national and international models for economic development.

Chapter 3  Fatherhood, unpaid care and the care economy
How have social and gender norms around fatherhood, caregiving and unpaid work shifted in
the past 20 years? How do men’s roles as caregivers impact gender equality more broadly?
With women now representing 40 per cent of the paid workforce, men have also begun to
play a larger role in care work. However, there is still much to be done. Women are still
spending one to three more hours each day on housework and two to ten times as much
time on caring for a child or older person than men. To advance gender equality, the burden
of care work on women must be alleviated and redistributed equally between men and
women.

This chapter will provide an overview of some of the broad shifts in unpaid care work and men’s caregiving at the international, national, local and individual levels. It will look at successful and promising policies that seek to create systemic shifts in the care work dynamic, including paid, non-transferable paternity leave, and other policies tailored to informal work economies. Finally, it will provide programmatic strategies that have been successful in engaging men to shift gender norms around fatherhood, caregiving and balancing the care divide.

Chapter 4  Education
What is the transformative function of education to challenge patriarchal power relations
learned and reproduced in school settings? This chapter explores recent trends and shifts in
gender and education, reviews educational sector efforts, teacher trainings, curriculums and
policies that have sought to or have evidence of transforming gender inequalities and harmful
gender norms in schools. The chapter also considers strategies to engage parents and
community members within the education system for gender-transformative efforts and
pedagogical approaches that adopt a more gender-equitable teaching–learning experience.

How young people and teachers construct their gendered identities in schools and how forms
of school violence are deeply rooted in unequal gender relations and constraints, including
heternormativity, are explored. Limitations of the emphasis on numerical equity in schools for achieving gender transformation and justice are unpacked. There is a particular dearth of in depth longitudinal studies to assess how educational interventions influence the gendered
experiences of students, teacher and educational outcomes, and how gender equality
educational work with boys influences girls’ empowerment. More research is also needed on
how addressing violence can keep boys and girls in schools, on boys’ gendered experiences
at schools including violence and bullying, and on the gender-related conditions that
encourage this and/or hinder responses.

Chapter 5  Sexual health and rights
What are the most effective and promising approaches to transform norms of masculinity that have been found to influence men’s sexual attitudes and behaviours, including their utilisation of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services?

This chapter reviews recent trends around the promotion of men’s sexual health and rights in ways that advance gender equality and support the SRH of girls and women, and how institutions, including political, religious, and health systems, have influenced these shifts. Key areas of concern for promoting men’s sexual health and rights are how to promote and ensure the sustainability of long-term attitude and behaviour change regarding men’s sexual health, which require more large-scale, long-term evaluations. For both men and women, there is a limited understanding of how sexuality intersects with SRH, and more grounded, ethnographic research on men’s SRH is required to better understand the cultural, social, and economic drivers behind men’s SRH, and the diversity of men’s sexual identities, practices, and relations. Such insights are critical for related policy, programming, and structural interventions. Prioritising quality, equality, and accountability for men’s sexual health to meet their own, as well as the SRH needs and rights of girls and women, is warranted.

Chapter 6  Health and wellbeing
What are the most promising and effective ways to challenge dominant constructions of
masculinity, such as notions of invulnerability and the promotion of risk-taking, which
influence men’s poor health and excess mortality? This chapter explores gendered disparities in health and wellbeing, including the complexity and diversity of men’s health in relation to women and girls, and how these are influenced by relational, institutional and structural factors. A review of institutions and policies that have supported and/or hindered men’s health and wellbeing including access to health care is offered, and how they can best respond to the ways that social, economic and political dynamics encourage men to compromise their health and public health more broadly.

The current stock of knowledge in the area of men’s health provides a limited basis for meeting men’s health needs, and for comprehensively evaluating programmatic and structural interventions to improve men’s health. Further evidence is needed to assess how efforts to improve men’s health behaviours and gender attitudes influence women’s health and wellbeing, using a gender relational approach.

Chapter 7  Sexual and gender-based violence
Three reasons to focus on men in sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) include that:
perpetrators of violence are overwhelmingly men and boys; constructions of masculinity work across individual to societal levels, driving gendered violence, and; violence is also of concern to men and boys. The evidence reviewed in this chapter reveals a series of key
findings, including that a focus on attitudes alone neglects the structural violence and
institutional inequalities which are shaping SGBV. Programmes explicitly addressing norms,
behaviours, and relations associated with ideals of manhood can indeed be gender
transformative, but with important caveats. For example, men and boys should not be treated
as a homogenous group, and programming must not reinforce binaries between men and
women. Strategies need to address harmful masculinities rather than merely behaviours or
attitudes. This requires engaging both men and women to challenge deeply held beliefs at
the personal level, and connecting specific programmes with enabling processes of wider
social change. Such enabling strategies should address the underlying drivers of violence,
including socio-economic inequalities and institutionalised discrimination. Future research
should include exploration of gendered power differences intersecting with other inequalities,
whilst context-specific longitudinal research on transitions to adulthood should be developed
alongside long-term programme evaluations.

Chapter 8  Conflict, security and peace-building
How do experiences of conflict and peace-building affect men and women differently? What
can be done to ensure that after conflict, communities establish sustainable peace and codify
gender equality? Violent conflict can have devastating emotional, physical and economic
impacts on the lives of all of those involved. With the understanding that men and women
face death and displacement, violence, economic failures and health in distinctly gendered
ways, the ways in which individuals, groups, policymakers and governments have approached and analysed conflict over the past 20 years has evolved greatly. This has brought increased attention to women’s and men’s varied experiences during and post conflict, including roles of violence perpetration, victimisation and peace-building. This chapter presents some of the broad shifts in the past 20 years with regard to trends in conflict and peace-building and their influence on gender roles and dynamics. It presents examples of policy solutions, including those to eradicate sexual violence in conflict by labelling and prosecuting it as a war crime and those promoting women’s participation in peace-building. It also presents programmatic strategies to engage men thoughtfully for gender-equitable outcomes in conflict, peace-building and post-conflict through their various roles as perpetrators, victims, leaders, and agents of change.

Chapter 9  Public and political participation
How can men’s control and domination of political and public spaces be transformed?
Quotas have improved women’s numerical representation in politics in most countries, but
this does not seem to radically shift patriarchal norms within institutions of power. Women’s
inclusion in social movements has often been instrumental or opportunistic, sometimes
reproducing gendered power imbalances. Men have reacted in different ways to women’s
increased public and political participation. Whilst men’s different material interests appear to
influence their support for or resistance to women’s participation, men can also gain from
equality due to relational and collective interests.

Evidence on effective strategies for men’s engagement in gender-equal public participation is sparse, but examples include: strategies in formal political institutions; strategies for women’s equal participation in wider social justice movements; and pro-feminist activism emerging from men’s engagement in addressing gender-based violence in community-based initiatives. However, there is a major gap in programming with men in support of women’s political empowerment, going beyond current programmes focused on interpersonal issues. There is a lack of evidence on effective approaches for increasing men’s active support for and engagement in women’s public participation, and we need better evidence on how institutions and their gender cultures can be reformed.


Full report: http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/7059/EMERGE.pdf?sequence=1